Whisk together flour, yeast and salt in a large mixing bowl. Combine water, sugar and olive oil in a microwave-safe measuring cup or bowl. Microwave on high for 45 seconds or until it reaches 120° to 130°F (if it gets hotter, leave thermometer in until it cools to within this range). Add to flour mixture and stir with a spoon until combined.
Spread dough into a greased or parchment-lined 13 x 9-inch pan . (Don’t worry if the dough isn’t even or stretching to the corners.) Cover with towel; let rise in warm place until doubled in size, about 30 minutes .
Preheat oven to 450 degrees with a baking stone or baking sheet positioned on the lowest rack.
Using your finger, gently poke holes into the dough about every inch, going nearly to the bottom of the dough. Stir garlic into melted butter and drizzle over bread, using your fingers to spread it evenly over top. Sprinkle evenly with cheese. Let dough rest an additional 15 minutes while the baking stone/sheet continues to preheat (should preheat about 30 minutes total).
Reduce oven temperature to 375º and bake on top of baking stone/sheet for about 20 minutes, or until cheese is bubbly and golden.